Here is what's in TheraBreath Oral Care Supplements (and why they help). Scientific references to studies listed in bibliography at bottom of page.
CoEnzyme Q10: Benefits for oral health maintenance
CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble quinone found in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. It is an indispensable carrier in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is involved in the production of cellular energy in the Citric Acid Cycle (CAC). To maintain optimal oral health, your gum tissue requires an extremely high level of cellular energy — to insure that repair of damaged tissue exceeds daily destructive factors. Consequently, CoQ10 has been shown to be a basic requirement. Studies have shown that CoQ10 deficiencies are related to limited host resistance and an increase in periodontal tissue destruction.
For example, studies have reported that insufficiencies of gingival & leukocytic CoQ10 found in patients suffering from red, swollen, bleeding, tender or irritated gums predispose to or emphasize progression of these conditions.4,5,6,7,8 In Hansen's study, gingival biopsies of 29 patients showed that all 29 (100%) had a reduction of CoQ10 activity of at least 20-63%. Blood studies showed that 86% of those patients had a reduction of Leukocyte CoQ10 activity of 20-66% compared to controls, indicating that the deficiency was likely systemic.5 However, treatment with CoQ10 supplementation restored gingival CoQ10 activity.9,10
CoQ10 has shown impressive results in reducing periodontal scores (p less than 0.01) as well as decreasing periodontal pocket depth (p less than 0.05).9 In a 3 week, double-blind clinical trial, eighteen patients with gum conditions including redness, swelling, bleeding, tenderness or irritation were given either 50 mg CoQ10 or a placebo and evaluated according to a "Periodontal Score" for a variety of periodontal testing factors such as swelling, bleeding, redness, pain, exudate, periodontal pocket depth, and mobility of teeth. All 8 patients in the CoQ10 group (100%) improved, while only 3 of 10 (30%) of the placebo group improved.10
Restoration of adequate levels of CoQ10 in the periodontium reverses bioenergetic cellular dysfunction of the Citric Acid Cycle (leading to hypercitricemia), enhances host resistance, raises the rate of repair above the degree of damage and helps to reduce and even reverse gum redness, swelling, bleeding, irritation and tenderness.11
Vitamin C dosing of 250 mg vs 60 mg in standard multivitamins: (From the Vitamin C Foundation)
Recently the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) issued dietary antioxidant recommendations. The new recommendations call for 90 mg. for vitamin C for healthy adults, up from 60 mg per day under the previous standard. Yet the government keeps preaching five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables, which supplies more than 200 mg. of vitamin C. [Am J Clin Nut 62: 1347-56S, 1995]
These two figures do not correlate. Just months before the 90 mg vitamin C recommendation was issued, various government scientists were calling for 120-200 mg per day in published reports. [Proc Natl Acad Sci 93:3704-09, 1996; Nutrition Reviews 57: 222-24, 1999; Am J Clin Nut 69:1086-1107, 1999]
One researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, using a technique called saturation kinetics, suggested that even the 200-mg level was not adequate to meet individual vitamin C needs by as much as 2-3 fold. [Proc Natl Acad Sci 93: 14344,48, 1996]
One assumption is that people do not need antioxidant supplement until they become unhealthy. But the Journal of the American Medical Association admits the destructive process of oxidation is involved in virtually every disease. [J Am Med Assn 271: 1148-49, 1994]
Additional CoQ10 References
Effectiveness of CoQ10 Oral Supplements as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Improving Periodontal Health. Manthena S, Rao MV, Penubolu LP, Putcha M, Harsha AV. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Aug;9(8):ZC26-8. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/13486.6291. Epub 2015 Aug 1.
INTRODUCTION: Deficiency of CoQ 10 was found in human inflamed gingiva and has been found to be responsible for periodontal destruction.
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ 10 supplementation as an adjunct to scaling and rootplaning in reducing gingival inflammation and periodontal pocket depth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel group design clinical trial. Thirty subjects with plaque induced gingival inflammation and having atleast three nonadjacent interproximal sites with a probing pocket depth ≥5mm were included in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The test group (n=15) in which patients were given oral CoQ10 supplements after scaling and root planing and the control group (n=15) in which patients were given an oral placebo after scaling and rootplaning. The plaque index, gingival index and probing depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Statistical analysis done by using Student's paired t-test for intragroup comparison and unpaired t-test for inter-group comparison.
RESULTS: Both the groups showed marked reduction of afore mentioned periodontal parameters at one month and three months when compared to baseline. Though there was no significant difference in plaque index and probing pocket depth between the two groups at any given time period, test group showed significant difference in gingival inflammation at one month and three months when compared to control group.
CONCLUSION: In the present study use of Coenzyme Q10 oral supplements as an adjunct to scaling and root planing showed significant reduction in gingival inflammation when compared to scaling and rootplaning alone.
Additional Zinc Gluconate ReferencesKomai M, Goto T, Suzuki H, Takeda T, Furukawa Y. Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):65-70, Zinc deficiency and taste dysfunction; contribution of carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-metalloenzyme, to normal taste sensation. Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Heyneman CA. Zinc deficiency and taste disorders. Ann Pharmacother 1996 Feb;30(2):186-7. Idaho Drug Information Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello 83209, USA.
Elemental zinc supplementation in daily dosages of 25-100 mg po appears to be an efficacious treatment for taste dysfunction secondary to zinc depletion. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation for the treatment of hypogeusia or dysgeusia secondary to drug therapy or medical conditions that do not involve low serum zinc concentrations.
Huttenbrink KB., [Disorders of the sense of smell and taste]. Ther Umsch 1995 Nov;52(11):732-7. Klinik und Poliklinik fur Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde der Medizinischen Fakultat Carl Gustav Carus, Technischen Universitat Dresden.
Disorders of olfaction and taste are infrequent, but a complete loss of smell or taste reduces the quality of life significantly. The sensitivity of human olfaction is remarkable, even for specific stimuli: Just a few molecules are enough to induce the correct identification of sterilised and ultraheated milk. Olfaction and taste are called 'chemical senses' because in both cases the adequate stimulus consists of molecules that bind to receptors of the sensory cells. The perceptions of smell and taste are often combined. Taste differentiates only four qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. The typical flavor of food or drink is detected by olfaction. Disturbances of olfaction can be due to respiratory disorders such as nasal polyps, a deviation of the nasal septum or chronic sinusitis. Such conditions can reduce airflow through the olfactory cleft at the roof of the nasal cavity. They can be corrected by modern endoscopic surgery of the nose. Epithelial disorders involving the sensory cells are most often caused by viral infections (influenza-anosmia) or toxic destruction of the sensory epithelium (solvents or gases). Epithelial disorders can be cured only rarely by any treatment. Corticosteroids, zinc, and vitamin A are tried frequently. Neural disorders occur after frontobasal trauma and during neurological diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Disorders of olfaction can be an early sign of such neurological diseases and sophisticated examination of this sense can contribute to their early diagnosis. However, no specific treatments have yet been identified. Disorders of taste can be due to toxic, chemical or inflammatory damage to the sensory cells of the tongue.
Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Hess JW, Kaplan J, Pelen F, Dardenne M. Zinc deficiency in elderly patients. Nutrition 1993 May-Jun;9(3):218-24. Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.
Zinc is needed for growth and development, DNA synthesis, neurosensory functions, and cell-mediated immunity. Although zinc intake is reduced in elderly people, its deficiency and effects on cell-mediated immunity of the elderly have not been established. Subjects enrolled in "A Model Health Promotion and Intervention Program for Urban Middle Aged and Elderly Americans" were assessed for nutrition and zinc status. One hundred eighty healthy subjects were randomly selected for the study. Their mean dietary zinc intake was 9.06 mg/day, whereas the recommended dietary allowance is 15 mg/day. Plasma zinc was normal, but zinc in granulocytes and lymphocytes were decreased compared with younger control subjects. Of 118 elderly subjects in whom zinc levels in both granulocytes and lymphocytes were available, 36 had deficient levels. Plasma copper was increased, and interleukin 1 (IL-1) production was significantly decreased. Reduced response to the skin-test antigen panel and decreased taste acuity were observed. Thirteen elderly zinc-deficient subjects were supplemented with zinc, and various variables were assessed before and after zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation corrected zinc deficiency and normalized plasma copper levels. Serum thymulin activity, IL-1 production, and lymphocyte ecto-5'-nucleotidase increased significantly after supplementation. Improvement in response to skin-test antigens and taste acuity was observed after zinc supplementation. A mild zinc deficiency appears to be a significant clinical problem in free-living elderly people.
Deems DA, Doty RL, Settle RG, Moore-Gillon V, Shaman P, Mester AF, Kimmelman CP, Brightman VJ, Snow JB Jr., Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991 May;117(5):519-28. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Human Communication, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences quality of life; complaints of taste loss usually reflect loss of smell function; upper respiratory infection, head trauma, and chronic nasal and paranasal sinus disease are the most common causes of the diminution of the sense of smell, with head trauma having the greatest loss; depression frequently accompanies chemosensory distortion; low body weight accompanies burning mouth syndrome; estrogens protect against loss of the sense of smell in postmenopausal women; zinc therapy may provide no benefit to patients with chemosensory dysfunction; and thyroid hormone function is associated with oral sensory distortion. The findings are discussed in relation to management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.
Rareshide E, Amedee RG., Disorders of taste. J La State Med Soc 1989 Sep;141(9):9-11
At least 2 million Americans suffer with chemosensory dysfunction or disorders of taste and smell. In addition to the obvious aesthetic deprivation, loss of taste may affect an individual's health and psychosocial situation. Most taste disorders are associated with antecedent upper respiratory infection, trauma, or allergic rhinitis, or have an idiopathic etiology. They may reflect underlying neoplastic, neurologic, endocrine, infectious, or nutritional disturbances; only 1% of these patients have a functional disorder. Evaluation consists of a history and physical, followed by a screening test battery searching for any of the treatable etiologies. One third of patients will respond to exogenous zinc therapy after a treatment period of 2 to 4 months. The remainder must rely on supportive measures such as additives, flavor enhancers, and rinses.
Stoll AL, Oepen G., Psychopharmacology Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115. Zinc salts for the treatment of olfactory and gustatory symptoms in psychiatric patients: a case series. J Clin Psychiatry 1994 Jul;55(7):309-11.
BACKGROUND: Zinc salts have been used extensively in medical settings to treat disorders of gustatory and olfactory function. However, zinc supplements have not been tested in psychiatric patients with smell or taste symptoms.
METHOD: The authors examined the effects of zinc supplements on five consecutive patients with symptoms of abnormal taste and smell perception in the context of acute psychiatric illness or treatment.
RESULTS: All five patients had complete or partial amelioration of these olfactory and gustatory symptoms after treatment with zinc sulfate or zinc gluconate, apparently independent of the improvement in their underlying psychiatric disorder.
CONCLUSION: We recommend treating unusual olfactory and gustatory symptoms with zinc salts, independent of the treatment for the underlying psychiatric disorder.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.